[Lamrim·Meditation] PREPARING FOR MEDITATIVE SERENITY P11

(b’) How to cultivate serenity on that basis

第二、依止资粮修奢摩他之理

(b’) How to cultivate serenity on that basis

《广论》【闻·思·修】Lamrim·Meditation

 第二、依止资粮修奢摩他之理,分二:一、加行;二、正行。今初:

  修如前说加行六法,尤应久修大菩提心。又应净修共中、下士所缘自体,为菩提心之支分。

 第二、正行,分二:一、身何威仪而修;二、正释修习之次第。今初:

  如《修次中篇》、《下篇》所说,于极柔软安乐坐垫具身威仪八法。其中足者,谓全跏趺,如毘卢遮那佛坐,或半跏趺,应如是行。眼者,谓不应太开,亦非太闭,垂注鼻端。身者,谓非过后仰,亦莫太前屈,内住正念端身而坐。肩者,谓平齐而住。头者,莫扬莫低,莫歪一方,自鼻至脐正直而住。齿与唇者,随自然住。舌者,令抵上齿。息者,内外出入莫令有声、粗猛、急滑,必使出入无所知觉,全无功用徐徐而转,应如是行。《声闻地》说于佛所许或床、或座、或草敷上,结跏趺坐,有五因相:一、善敛其身速发轻安,由此威仪顺生轻安故。二、由此宴坐能经久时,以此威仪不极令身疾疲倦故。三、由此威仪不共外道及异论故。四、由此威仪宴坐令他见已极信敬故。五、由此威仪,佛、佛弟子共所开许、共依止故。正观如是五因相故,说应结跏趺坐。端正身者,是说为令不生昏沈、睡眠。如是先应令身具八威仪,尤于调息如说善修。

  第二正释修习之次第。诸道次第,多依辨中边论所说,由八断行,断五过失,修奢摩他。 善知识拉梭瓦所传之教授,更于彼上,加声闻地所说六力,四种作意,及九住心,德称大师道次第云:「四作意中,摄九住心及断六过八对治行,是为一切正定方便,众多契经及庄 严经论,辨中边论,无着菩萨瑜伽师地论,中观宗三编修次等,开示修静虑之方便中一切 皆同。若能先住正定资粮,以此方便励力修习,决定能得妙三摩地。现在传说修静虑之甚 深教授中,全不见此方便之名,若不具足正定资粮及无此方便,虽长时修定终不成。」此语是于诸大教典修定方法,得清净解。又总三乘修道次第,无着菩萨于五分中极广决择,故彼为最广开示修行之论,然于一处广说之事,余则从略。止观二法,摄决择说于声闻地 应当了知,故声闻地最为广者。慈尊则于庄严经论辨中边论,说九住心及八断行,狮子贤 论师莲花戒论师寂静论师等,印度智者随前诸论,亦多著有修定次第,又除缘佛像空点种子形等,所缘不同外,其定大体,前诸大论与咒所说,极相随顺。尤于定五过失及除过方 便等经反较详,然能依彼大论修者,几同昼星。将自心垢责为论过,谓彼唯能开辟外解,妄执开示心要义理别有教授。于彼所说修定次第,正修定时,竟为何似,全无疑惑。然此教授 一切修行,前后皆取大论所出,故于此处修定方法,亦取大论而为宣说。

《广论》 Pg347L07-Pg349L07

*《菩提道次第广论》原文改译——大慈恩译经基金会

(b’) How to cultivate serenity on that basis

This has two parts: (1) preparation and (2) actual practice.

(1’) Preparation

Practice the six preparatory teachings explained above and especially cultivate the spirit of enlightenment for a long time; also, in support of that you should do the meditative practices that are shared with persons of small and medium capacities.

(2’) Actual practice

This has two parts: (1) meditative posture and (2) the meditative process itself.

(a’’) Meditative posture

Kamalasila’s second and third Stages of Meditation say that you should take up an eight-point posture on a very soft and comfortable seat: (1) Cross your legs in the manner of the venerable Vairocana, using either the full-lotus posture or the half-lotus posture as appropriate. (2) Your eyes should be neither wide open nor too far closed, and they should be fixed on the tip of your nose. (3) Sit with your awareness directed inward, keeping your body straight without leaning too far back or being bent too far forward. (4) Keep your shoulders straight and even. (5) Do not raise or lower your head nor turn it to one side; set it so that your nose and navel are aligned. (6) Set your teeth and lips in their usual, natural positions. (7) Draw your tongue up close to your upper teeth. (8) Your inhalation and exhalation should not be noisy, forced, or uneven; let it flow effortlessly, ever so gently, without any sense that you are moving it here or there.

 Asanga’s Sravaka Levels gives five reasons for sitting as the Bud- ha taught, cross-legged on a seat, stool, or grass mat: (1) This posture in which the body is pulled together well is conducive to the arising of pliancy, so you will develop pliancy very quickly. (2) Sitting in this way makes it possible to maintain the posture for a long time; the posture does not lead to physical exhaustion. (3) This posture is not common to non-Buddhists and our opponents. (4) When others see you sitting in this posture, they are inspired. (5) The Buddha and his disciples used this posture and bestowed it upon us. Asanga’s Sravaka Levels says that, in light of these reasons, you should sit cross-legged. It also says that you keep your body straight so that lethargy and sleepiness will not occur.

 Thus, at the outset you have to meet these eight points of physical conduct, particularly the calming of breathing just as I have described above.

(b’’) The meditative process

Broadly speaking, the “stages of the path” tradition indicates that you achieve serenity by means of the eight antidotes which eliminate the five faults listed in Maitreya’s Separation of the Middle from the Extremes (Madhyanta-vibhaga). Personal instructions passed The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path down from Geshe Lak-sor-wa (dGe-bshes Lag-sor-ba) explain that in addition to that you have to achieve serenity through the six powers, the four types of attention, and the nine mental states which Asanga’s Sravaka Levels explains. The scholar Yön-den-drak (Yon-tan-grags) says:

  The methods of the nine mental states are included in the four attentions, and the six faults and the eight applications which are their antidotes are the method [for achieving] all concentrations. This is agreed upon in all teachings about the techniques for meditative stabilization—including those in most sutras, Maitreya’s Ornament for the Mahayana Sutras and Separation of the Middle from the Extremes, Asanga’s texts on the levels, and Kamalasıla’s three Stages of Meditation. Those who first have the preconditions for concentration will definitely attain concentration if they use these methods to work at it. Nowadays, supposedly profound oral traditions on meditative stabilization lack even the names of these techniques. These texts do not indicate that you will achieve concentration without the preconditions for concentration and these techniques, even if you work at it for a long time.

This is stated in his text on the stages of the path; it speaks of reaching pure certainty about how the classic texts present the way to achieve concentration. In that regard, since the general way of teaching the stages of the paths of the three vehicles is demonstrated at length in the noble Asanga’s five texts on the levels, the texts that teach these practices are very extensive. Among these five, one text gives a detailed explanation, while the others do not. Asanga’s Compendium of Determinations (Viniscaya-samgrahani) says that his Sravaka Levels should be used to understand serenity and insight, so it is the Sravaka Levels that is most extensive. Also, the venerable Maitreya discusses the methods of the nine mental states and the eight antidotes in his Ornament for the Mahayana Sutras and Separation of the Middle from the Extremes. Following them, such learned Indian masters as Haribhadra, Kamalasıla, and Ratnakarasanti wrote much about the process of achieving concentration. On the general sense of concentration the tantras are very consistent with the explanations in these classic texts, except that they use different objects of meditation, such as divine bodies, drops, and syllables. In particular, texts in the sutra class provide very extensive discussions of problems—such as the five faults of concentration—and ways of clearing them away.

 However, those who know how to practice on the basis of those classic texts alone are as rare as stars in the daytime. Those who impose on those texts the stains of their defective understanding derive only a superficial comprehension and maintain that the instructions that reveal the quintessential meaning lie elsewhere. When the time comes for them to put into practice the process of achieving concentration which these texts explain, they do not even research how to do it.

 The personal instructions of this treatise stress only the practices from the beginning to the end which are derived from the classic texts. Therefore, herein I will explain the methods used to achieve concentration drawing on the classic texts.

Lamrim Chenmo Vol. 3 Pg30LL07-Pg33L10


References 参考资料:​​
  1. 《菩提道次第廣論》全文下載
  2. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (Tib. Lam rim chen mo) (Volume 3), Shambhala Publications
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