[Lamrim·Meditation] SERENITY AND INSIGHT P8

第五次第决定之理者

(e) How to be certain about their order

《广论》【闻·思·修】Lamrim·Meditation

  第五、次第决定之理者:如《入行论》云:“当知具止观,能摧诸烦恼,故应先求止。”谓先修止,次依止故,乃修妙观。若作是念:“《修次初篇》云:‘此之所缘无定。’此说止缘无有决定。前文亦说,止所缘中俱有有法、法性。故先了解无我深义,缘彼而修,则心无散乱之止及缘空性之观即可俱起,何必先求奢摩他已,次乃修观耶?答:此说止为胜观前行之理者,非说引生证无我正见之领解,须先修止,虽无止者,亦能生正见故。又此正见内生转心觉受,亦不须以止为先,以无止者,仅以观慧数数思择串习,亦能转心,无所违故;以若相违,则修无常、生死过患、菩提心等,引生转心觉受,皆须依止,太为过失,理相等故。

  若尔,观需寂止,道理为何?于此《解深密经》说:”若以观慧而修思择、最极思择,乃至未起身心轻安,尔时但是毘钵舍那随顺作意,生轻安已乃名妙观。故若未得止,纵以观慧任作何许观修,终不能发身心轻安所有喜乐。若得止已,后以观慧思择而修,轻安乃生,故观须止为因,下当广说。是故观慧不住一境,即以思择之力,若能引发轻安之时,乃是成办毘钵舍那。虽缘空性为境,若但由其住一所缘,引生轻安,仍未能出修止之法,仅此不立即得毘钵舍那。以初未得寂止,先求了解无我之义,次缘此义数数思择,由此思择终不得止。若不思择安住而修,由此为依虽可得止,然除修止之法,而无修观之法,更须求观。故仍未出先求止已,依此而修胜观次第。若不以别别观察之观修引发轻安,作为发观之理,则先求止,次乃依之修观,全无正理。若不如是次第而修,亦极非理,以如前引《解深密经》,说要依获得奢摩他乃修毘钵舍那。又“依前而生后”,说六度中静虑与般若之次第,及依增上定学而生增上慧学之次第,皆先修止而后修观次第。又如前引《菩萨地》文,《声闻地》亦说,当依奢摩他而修毘钵舍那。《中观心论》《入行论》、《修次》三篇、智称论师、寂静论师等,皆说先求奢摩他已,后修胜观。故印度少数论师,有说无须别求正奢摩他,最初即以观慧思择,亦能引生毘钵舍那者,违诸大车所造论典,非诸智者可凭信处。

《广论》 Pg344L02-Pg345LL06

*《菩提道次第广论》原文改译——大慈恩译经基金会

(e) How to be certain about their order

Santideva’s Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds says:
  Insight possessed of serenity
  Destroys the afflictions. Knowing this,
  Seek serenity (止) at the outset.

According to this statement, you first achieve meditative serenity (止) and then cultivate insight on that basis.
 Qualm: Kamalasila’s first Stages of Meditation says, “Its object of meditation is indeterminate,” meaning that the object of meditation of meditative serenity (止) is indeterminate. As explained above, the object of meditation of serenity (止) may be either reality itself or a conventional phenomenon possessed of reality. If you first understand the meaning of selflessness, and then meditate while focusing on this, it should be enough to simultaneously produce both the serenity (止) of an undistracted mind and insight focused on emptiness. Why, then, is it said that you first seek serenity (奢摩他) and then cultivate insight?
 Reply: The way in which serenity (止) precedes insight is as follows. You do not need to have serenity (止) already in order to develop an understanding of the view that knows that there is no self, for we see that even those who lack serenity (止) develop this view. Nor do you need to have serenity (止) already in order to experience mental transformation in regard to the view, for nothing precludes mental transformation being brought on by the practice of repeated analysis with discerning wisdom, even in the absence of serenity (止). If you claim that the absence of serenity (止) precludes mental transformation in regard to the view, then the very same reasoning forces you to the extremely absurd conclusion that serenity (止) is required even to experience mental transformation when meditating on impermanence, the faults of cyclic existence, or the spirit of enlightenment.
 So, why is serenity (止) required for insight? According to the Sutra Unravelling the Intended Meaning, as long as the practice of discrimination and special discrimination with discerning wisdom cannot generate physical and mental pliancy, it constitutes a type of attention which approximates insight; when it generates pliancy, then it is insight. Thus, if you have not attained serenity (止), then no matter how much analytical meditation you do with discerning wisdom, in the end you will not be able generate the delight and bliss of physical and mental pliancy. Once you have attained meditative serenity (止), then even the analytical meditation of discerning wisdom will culminate in pliancy. Hence, insight requires meditative serenity as a cause. This will be explained below.
 Discerning wisdom becomes insight when, without focusing on a single object, it can generate pliancy through the power of analysis. So generating pliancy by setting your attention on a single object of meditation – even if the object is emptiness – is nothing more than a way to achieve serenity (止); that alone does not count as attaining insight. Why? If you thus first seek an understanding of selflessness, analyzing its meaning again and again, it will be impossible to achieve serenity (止) on the basis of this analysis since you have not previously achieved serenity (止). If you do stabilizing meditation without analysis, you will achieve serenity (止) on that basis. However, as there is no way to sustain insight except by sustaining serenity (止), you have to seek insight later. Hence, this does not fall outside the pattern in which, having previously sought serenity (止), you cultivate insight based on it.
 Accordingly, the way insight develops is that discerning analytical meditation generates pliancy. If this were not so, there would not be the slightest good reason to seek serenity (止) first and then cultivate insight based on it. Failing to do these meditations in this order is quite inappropriate because the Sutra Unravelling the Intended Meaning states in a passage cited above that you cultivate insight on the basis of having attained serenity (奢摩他). Also, the order of meditative stabilization and wisdom among the six perfections of which it is said that “the latter develop based on the former“as well as the sequence in which training in higher wisdom is based on training in higher concentration (定) are in agreement with the sequence in which, having previously cultivated serenity (止), you later cultivate insight. Asanga’s Bodhisattva Levels (cited earlier) and his Sravaka Levels indicate that insight is cultivated on the basis of meditative serenity (止). Also, Bhavaviveka’s Heart of the Middle Way, Santideva’s Engaging in the Bodhisattva Deeds, Kamalasila’s three Stages of Meditation, Jnanakirti, and Ratnakarasanti all state that you cultivate insight after previously seeking serenity (奢摩他). Some Indian masters claim that, without seeking serenity (奢摩他) separately, you generate insight from the outset through analysis by discerning wisdom. Since this view contradicts the texts of the great trailblazers, the wise deem it to be untrustworthy.

Lamrim Chenmo Pg23LL10-Pg25LL15


References 参考资料:​​
  1. 《菩提道次第廣論》全文下載
  2. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (Tib. Lam rim chen mo) (Volume 3), Shambhala Publications
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