[Lamrim·Meditation] PREPARING FOR MEDITATIVE SERENITY P10

一学奢摩他法

(i) How to train in meditative serenity

《广论》【闻·思·修】Lamrim·Meditation

 第六、各别学法,分三:一、学奢摩他法;二、学毘钵舍那法;三、彼二双运之法。初又分三:一、修止资粮;二、依止资粮修奢摩他之理;三、修已成就奢摩他量。今初:

  诸瑜伽师当依速易成止之因──寂止资粮。其中有六:一、住随顺处,谓住具五德处:易于获得,谓无大劬劳得衣食等;处所贤善,谓无猛兽等凶恶众生,及无怨等之所居住;地土贤善,谓非引生疾病之地;伴友贤善,谓具良友戒见相同;具善妙相,谓日无多人,夜静声寂。如《庄严经论》亦云:“具慧修行处,善得贤善处,善地及善友,瑜伽安乐具。二、少欲,无增上贪众多上妙法衣等事。三、知足,但得微劣法衣等物,常能知足。四、断诸杂务,皆当断除行贸易等诸恶事业,或太亲近在家、出家,或行医药、算星相等。五、清净尸罗,于别解脱及菩萨律,皆不应犯性罪、遮罪,破坏学处;设放逸犯,速生追悔,如法还净。六、断除欲等诸恶寻思,谓于诸欲,当修杀、缚等现法过患,及堕恶趣等当来过患。又生死中爱、非爱事,皆是无常可破坏法,此定不久与我分离,何为于彼而起增上贪等?应如是修,断除一切诸欲寻思。此如《修次中篇》之意而说,于《声闻地》应当广知。

  如是六法能摄妙定未生新生、生已不退安住、增长因缘宗要,尤以清净尸罗、观欲过患、住相顺处为其主要。善知识敦巴云:“我等唯觉是教授过,专求教授。然定不生,是未安住资粮所致。”言资粮者,即前六等。又前四度,即是第五静虑资粮,《修次初篇》云:“若能不着利等诸欲,善住尸罗,性忍众苦,勤发精进,速能引发正奢摩他。故《解深密经》等,亦说施等为后后因。《道炬论》亦云:“失坏止支分,虽励力修习,纵经多千年,不能成正定。”故真欲修止、观定者,应励力集《声闻地》中正奢摩他十三支分或资粮等,极为主要。

《广论》 Pg346L02-Pg347L06

*《菩提道次第广论》原文改译——大慈恩译经基金会

(f) How to train in each
This has three sections:
  1. How to train in meditative serenity (Chapters 2-6)
  2. How to train in insight (Chapters 7-26)
  3. How to unite them (Chapter 26)

(i) How to train in meditative serenity
This section has three parts:
  1. Relying on the preconditions for meditative serenity
  2. How to cultivate serenity on that basis (Chapters 2-5)
  3. The measure of successful cultivation of serenity (Chapters 5-6)

(a’) Relying on the preconditions for meditative serenity
At the outset, the yogi should rely on the preconditions for serenity, which make it possible to achieve serenity quickly and comfortably. There are six:

(1′) Dwelling in an appropriate area
The area should have five attributes: (a) easy access, so that necessities such as food and clothing may be readily obtained; (b) being a good place to live, where there are no wild beasts such as predators, no enemies, etc.; (c) being on a good piece of ground, in that it does not breed sickness; (d) offering good companionship insofar as your companions are ethically disciplined and likeminded; and (e) being well-situated inasmuch as there are not many people about in the day and little noise at night. Maitreya’s Ornament for the Mahayana Sutras states:
  The intelligent practice in a place
  Which is accessible, is a good place to live,
  Offers good ground and good companions,
  And has the requisites for comfortable yogic practice.

(2′) Having little desire
You do not strongly crave more or better robes, etc.

(3′) Being content
You are always content to have even the poorest robes, etc.

(4′) Completely giving up many activities
You give up base activities such as buying and selling; you also abandon excessive socializing with householders and renunciates, as well as pursuits such as medicine and astrology.

(5′) Pure ethical discipline
You do not violate precepts, doing deeds that are wrong by nature or wrong by prohibition, either in the case of vows of individual liberation or in the case of bodhisattva vows. If you do violate them through carelessness, you restore them promptly with regret in accordance with the teaching.

(6′) Completely getting rid of thoughts of desire, etc.
In the case of desires, contemplate their disadvantages in this lifetime, such as their leading to being killed or imprisoned, as well their disadvantages for the future, such as their leading to rebirth in miserable realms. Alternatively, eliminate all thoughts of desire and such by meditating with the thought that “Everything in cyclic existence, pleasant or unpleasant, is ephemeral and impermanent. Since it is certain that I will shortly be separated from all of these things, why should I crave them?”

I have explained these points according to the purport of Kamalasila’s second Stages of Meditation; you should learn more about them from Asaitga’s Sravaka Levels. These six topics cover the key causes and conditions for newly developing good concentration, for maintaining an existing concentration without deterioration, and for heightening your concentration. In particular, the most important ones are good ethical discipline, seeing desires as disadvantageous, and dwelling in an appropriate area. Geshe Drom-don-ba said:
  We think that the fault lies only in our personal instructions. As we then seek only personal instructions, we are unable to attain concentration. This is the result of not abiding under its conditions.

The term “conditions” refers to the six explained above.
 Moreover, the first four perfections serve as preconditions for the fifth, meditative stabilization. Kamalasila’s first Stages of Meditation states:
  You quickly accomplish serenity when you disregard the desire for possessions and such, keep good ethical discipline, have a disposition to readily tolerate suffering, and joyously persevere. That being the case, sources such as the Sutra Unravelling the Intended Meaning teach that generosity and the other perfections are causes of the successively higher perfections.

Atisha’s Lamp for the Path to Enlightenment states:
  When you lack the elements of serenity,
  Even if you meditate assiduously,
  You will not achieve concentration
  Even in thousands of years.

Therefore, it is very important for those who sincerely wish to achieve the concentrations of serenity and insight to work on the elements or preconditions for serenity, such as the thirteen which are set forth in Asariga’s Sravaka Levels.

Lamrim Chenmo Pg28L16-Pg30LL08


References 参考资料:​​
  1. 《菩提道次第廣論》全文下載
  2. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (Tib. Lam rim chen mo) (Volume 3), Shambhala Publications
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