[Lamrim·Meditation] DEALING WITH LAXITY AND EXCITEMENT P23

一修习 对治不知沉掉

(a’)) Using the remedy for failing to recognize laxity and excitement

《广论》【闻·思·修】Lamrim·Meditation

 第三住所缘后应如何修分二,有沉掉时应如何修, 离沉掉时应如何修。 初又分二,修习对治不知沉掉, 修习知已为断彼故对治不勤功用。 初又分二,决择沉掉之相, 于正修时生觉沉掉正知之方便。  今初
  掉举如集论云:「云何掉举,净相随转,贪分所摄,心不静照,障止为业。」此中有三,一所缘,可爱净境。二行相,心不寂静向外流散,是贪分中趣境爱相。三作业,能障其心安住所缘。于内所缘令心住时,由贪色声等之掉举,于境牵心令不自在,贪爱散乱。如悔赞云:「如缘奢摩他,令心于彼住,惑索令离彼,贪绳牵趣境。问:由余烦恼,从所缘境令心流散,及于所余善缘流散是否掉举,:掉是贪分,由余烦恼流散非掉,是二十随烦恼中散乱心所。于善缘流散随其所应,是善心心所,非一切散皆是掉举。
  沉者亦译退弱,与丧心志之退弱不同。于此沉相,雪山聚中修静虑者,多于「安住不 散,相不明澄之昏昧,许之为沉。」此不应理。论说昏昧为沉之因,二各别故。修次中编云: 「此中若由昏沉睡眠所蔽,见心沉没或恐沉没。解深密经云:「若由昏沉及以睡眠,或 由沉没,或由随一三摩钵底诸随烦恼之所染污,当知是名内心散动。」此说由昏沉及睡眠力令心沉没,名内散动故。集论亦于说随烦恼散乱之时说其沉没,然彼说散乱亦有善性非定染污。昏沉如集论云:「云何昏沉谓痴分摄,心无堪能,与一切烦恼及随烦恼助伴 为业。」是痴分中身心沉重无堪能性。俱舍论云:「云何昏沉,谓身重性及心重性,即身无 堪能性及心无堪能性。」沉没谓心于所缘执持力缓或不极明,故虽澄净,若取所缘不极 明显即是沉没。修次中编云:「若时如盲或如有人趣入暗室或如闭目,其心不能明见所缘,应知尔时已成沉没。」未见余论明说沉相。沉没有二,谓善与无记。昏是不善或有覆无 记,唯是痴分。诸大经论皆说除遣沉没,思佛像等诸可欣境及修光明相策举其心,故心暗境晦及心力低劣,皆应灭除。双具所缘明显与策举之力,唯境明显及唯心澄清非为完足。 掉举易了,唯沉没相诸大经论多未明说故难了知,然极重要,以易于彼误为无过三摩地 故,应如修次所说从修验上细心观察而求认识。

《广论》 Pg365LL05-Pg367L05

(c)) What to do after you focus on an object of meditation
This has two sections:
  1. What to do when laxity and excitement occur
  2. What to do when laxity and excitement are absent

(1)) What to do when laxity and excitement occur
This has two parts:
  1. Using the remedy for failing to recognize laxity and excitement
  2. Using the remedy for failing to try to eliminate them even when they are recognized

(a’)) Using the remedy for failing to recognize laxity and excitement
This has two sections: (1) the defining characteristics of laxity and excitement, and (2) the method for developing vigilance that rec- ognizes them during meditation.

(1’)) The defining characteristics of laxity and excitement
Excitement is defined in Asanga’s Compendium of Knowledge:
  What is excitement? It is an unquiet state of mind, considered a derivative of attachment, which pursues pleasant objects and acts as an impediment to meditative serenity.

There are three aspects to this definition: (1) Its object is an attractive and pleasant one. (2) Its subjective aspect is that your mind is unquiet and scattered outward. As it is a derivative of attachment, it engages its object with a sense of craving. (3) Its function is to impede stabilization of your mind on its object.
  When your attention is inwardly fixed upon its object, excitement—which is attached to form, sound, and so on—pulls your attention helplessly toward these objects and causes distraction. As it says in Candragomin’s Praise of Confession:
  Just as you are focused on meditative serenity,
  Directing your attention toward it again and again,

  The noose of the afflictions pulls your attention
  Helplessly with the rope of attachment to objects.

 Question: Is it excitement when there is scattering in which other afflictions distract your mind away from the object—or, for that matter, when there is scattering toward other virtuous objects?
 Reply: Excitement is a derivative of attachment, so being distracted by other afflictions is not excitement; rather, it is the mental process of distraction which is one of the twenty secondary afflictions. Scattering toward virtuous objects may involve any virtuous mind or mental process, so not all scattering is excitement.
  Many translations render laxity (bying ba) as “slackness” (zhum pa), but this “slackness” should not be construed as meaning discouragement (zhum pa). As for its definition, most yogis among these snowy peaks seem to consider laxity to be a lethargic state of mind that stays on its object of meditation without scattering elsewhere but lacks limpid clarity. This is incorrect, for lethargy is said to cause laxity, so the two are distinct, as suggested in Kamalasila’s second Stages of Meditation:
  If, being oppressed by lethargy and sleepiness, you see your mind become lax, or in danger of laxity….

Also, the Sutra Unravelling the Intended Meaning says:
  If there is laxity due to lethargy and sleepiness, or if you are afflicted by any secondary afflictions in meditative absorption, it is a case of internal mental distraction.

This states that when your mind becomes lax due to lethargy and sleepiness, it is distracted inwardly. Asanga’s Compendium of Knowledge also discusses laxity in the context of the secondary affliction of distraction, but distraction as he explains it may also be virtuous, so it is not necessarily afflictive.
  Of lethargy, then, Asanga’s Compendium of Knowledge says:
  What is lethargy? An unserviceable state of mind classified as a derivative of delusion, it works to assist all root afflictions and secondary afflictions.

So, this derivative of delusion is the heaviness and unserviceability of body and mind. Vasubandhu’s Treasury of Knowledge Auto-commentary says:
  What is lethargy? The heaviness of the body and the heaviness of the mind which are the unserviceability of the body and the unserviceability of the mind.

 Laxity means that your mind’s way of apprehending the object of meditation is slack, and it does not apprehend the object with much vividness or firmness. So even if it is limpid, if your mind’s way of apprehending the object is not highly vivid, then laxity has set in. Kamalasila’s second Stages of Meditation states:
  When your mind does not see the object vividly—like a person born blind, or a person entering a dark place, or like having one’s eyes shut—then recognize that your mind has become lax.

I have not seen a clear presentation of the definition of laxity in the other classic texts.
 Laxity may be virtuous or ethically neutral, whereas lethargy is either a nonvirtuous or ethically neutral mental obstruction, and it is invariably a derivative of delusion. Moreover, the classic texts say that to dispel laxity, you must bring to mind pleasant objects such as the body of the Buddha, or meditate on light so as to stimulate your mind. Therefore, you have to stop the object from appear- ing unclearly, as though darkness were descending on your mind, and you have to put an end to the quality of attention which has become flaccid. You need both a clear object of meditation and a tight way of apprehending the object. Neither a clear object alone nor transparency of the subject alone is enough.
 It is easy to recognize excitement, but laxity is hard to comprehend since it is not clearly identified in the authoritative classic texts. It is also very important because in this case it is a major point of misunderstanding concerning flawless concentration. Therefore, you should experience laxity with an exacting awareness, and on that basis examine it well and identify it in accordance with Kamalasila’s Stages of Meditation.

Lamrim Chenmo Pg57L15-Pg60L11


References 参考资料:​​
  1. 《菩提道次第廣論》全文下載
  2. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment (Tib. Lam rim chen mo) (Volume 3), Shambhala Publications
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